“…so as to include Boones old Station camp”
A re-evaluation of the location of Daniel Boone’s 1769 station camp
by Jeff Renner
This article also appears in The Journal of Kentucky History and Genealogy.

The chronicle of Daniel Boone’s 1769 pioneering excursion into the interior of Kentucky is, literally, the stuff of legends. One could argue that without that journey and exploration the Boone saga would not exist, for it was his two-year wilderness odyssey which positioned and prepared him to lead the Transylvania assemblage to Boonesborough six years later. Absent those exploits, Boone would have remained just another hunter pushing the frontier.

One key aspect of the trip, indubitably the first item on the group’s agenda, was to find a suitable location for their base camp. It needed to be close to a water supply, near the hunting grounds, and convenient to game trails, but not completely out in the open. Boone found an agreeable site, close by to several salt licks where their prey congregated; it could make for leisurely hunting. For several months they used this camp, until a change in the party’s organization and circumstances dictated otherwise. Determining exactly where this camp was, though, has proven troublesome until now.

When it comes to Boone, separating fact from fiction, myth from truth, can be a daunting task. The Daniel Boone of copious popular histories has become so ingrained in the public mind that divorcing his actual deeds from the doubtful tales risks accusations of intent to diminish his accomplishments and remarkable exploits. As one biographer says, “the facts come inextricably entwined with the legend.”[1]

Another issue arising within any Boone-related study is the often-contradictory information concerning even the more plausible, mundane and accepted events. This happens most frequently due to the simple lack of solid facts supporting the details. One writer will understandably fill the void with an opinion or theory while the next proffers different particulars. That is the core problem—we often just do not know with any degree of certainty.

Consequently, finding a solid nugget of Boone data, especially when it concerns a stated-to-be-unknown subject, is, indeed, most welcome. In this instance the nugget of data is a land entry and survey; the subject is the whereabouts of Boone’s 1769 storied base camp—his Station Camp.

Searching for the camp
The whereabouts of Boone’s station camp, while confidently, albeit vaguely, located on Station Camp Creek by practically all students of Boone, has never before been placed with any degree of researched confidence. Lyman Draper realized this while attempting to pen his Boone biography in the mid-1850s and lamented that Daniel Bryan had not been asked specifically about the camp’s location when Bryan was interviewed in 1844. Draper concluded, “it can probably never be determined with more precision than here stated.”[2]

The “here stated” position was simply “on the waters of Station Camp Creek,” as Bryan and Samuel Boone had indicated, likely near the Red Lick Fork. Draper pointed out that a Red River placement was clearly incorrect.[3]

The issue weighed on Draper’s mind, as he again broached the subject in the early 1880s. Elihu Benton, a resident of Estill County, replied to Draper’s questions.

In answer to your inquiry about Station Camp Creek in this county, and Daniel Boone’s camp on that creek - I will state that I am only 52 years old, and know nothing of my own knowledge - it is only hearsay. I am more or less acquainted with that creek and all its forks and branches. I was born on the Red Lick Fork of that creek, about 2 1/2 or 3 miles from the main creek, Feb. 20, 1832.[4]

Benton asked around about the camp and later replied to Draper: “I find the oldest settlers differ about the old camps and whether by Indians or whites, or by Daniel Boone. I have tried to see as many men, the oldest settlers, as I could.”[5]

Throughout the correspondence with Benton and his neighbors, various locations of camps are mentioned on Station Camp proper and on Red Lick Fork. M.R. Benton may have been speaking for everyone when he said, “I never knew where Boone’s Fort was on Station Camp Creek in Estill County, Ky.”[6]

Following Draper, writers positioned the camp on main Station Camp Creek, sometimes offering that it was in proximity to Red Lick Creek.

Perhaps, as Draper suggested, Bryan knew the camp’s location. It may have been common knowledge among many of the early residents, or at least among Boone’s hunting peers. Regardless, one person who definitely did know was Anthony Bledsoe. And he was kind enough to tell us—in a somewhat obscure way.

Finding the camp
Land entries, particularly those from 1779 and 1780, are oftentimes fascinating and revealing glimpses into the geography of Kentucky as the first great wave of settlement broke over the landscape. Entrants would use whatever prominent geographical feature presented itself—a settlement, a creek, a road, initials carved into a tree—as a marker to try to secure a tract of land for later surveying. In theory, the better the land was described in the entry, the less chance there was of a conflicting claim being successfully produced later.

Anthony Bledsoe, who, along with his brothers Isaac and Abraham, may have taken part in the 1769 “long hunt” with James Knox, Henry Scaggs and others, identified his 11 May 1780 claim in terms which a hunter would surely recognize: “Anthony Bledsoe enters 1000 acres on Station Camp Creek where the waters Running out of the Blue lick Join those Running from the Red lick extending up in the forks of the said 2 creeks so as to include Boones old Station camp.”[7]

Before taking a closer look at Bledsoe’s land, the first obvious question to address is: Was this camp the station camp? Of course, we have no corroborating statement made by Boone or his compatriots which would definitively state that Boone’s camp was on the land Bledsoe entered. However, unless one wishes to argue that Boone had multiple station camps south of the Kentucky River, we are left to accept Bledsoe’s entry as worded—the implication clearly being that Boone had a single station camp and that the location was generally known at that time. Other camps associated with Boone, including one on Stinking Creek in Knox County, do not have the “station” descriptor attached to them.[8]

So, where was Bledsoe’s land? Fortunately, the corresponding 1785 survey is easily placed, primarily due to the watercourses and landmarks involved.[9] The survey drawing of the roughly-rectangular, east-west-oriented acreage clearly shows, and labels, the three streams which comprise the Red Lick Fork of Station Camp Creek—Blue Lick to the south, Red Lick to the north, Joseph Lick in the center.

The survey is not perfect. Plotting reveals surveying errors typical of the times and the creeks identified have slightly different modern names—Joseph Lick is now Joe (or Joe’s) Lick, Bledsoe’s Red Lick is today’s Gravel Lick, while his Blue Lick is officially called Red Lick. (The actual Red Lick was in a hollow south of Dreyfus.) As recently as 1950, maps of the area used the Bledsoe naming scheme.[10] But the locale of the tract is unmistakable—it is approximately six miles east-northeast of Berea, in Madison County, north of Pilot Knob, east of Robe Mountain/Basin Mountain. Brushy Knob is inside the survey’s bounds. Subsequent adjacent surveys confirm this placement.[11]

In addition, what was once the Blue Lick—sometimes called Boone’s Blue Lick—lay on the northern flank of Robe Mountain.[12] The “waters running out of the Blue Lick” would, on a modern map, form Blue Lick Creek, into which runs Horse Cove Branch. Approximately two miles from the lick, Blue Lick Creek and Cowbell Creek meet to create Red Lick Creek proper, which then meanders almost 16 miles before joining main Station Camp Creek a few miles south of Irvine.

Boone’s station camp is not marked on Bledsoe’s survey, so the best we can do is surmise its location by applying the wording of the entry to the reality of the area’s topography. Brushy Knob sits immediately west of the confluence of Bledsoe’s Red and Blue Lick Creeks and its elevation takes up about 350 acres of the survey. That area can be eliminated if one assumes the camp was not up on the hill. The implication of the entry’s wording leads one to believe the camp was not near the confluence, but rather some distance to the west, in the interior of the survey. Such postulating places the camp on Joe Lick Fork, perhaps within a 400-acre area centered approximately at N37.590, W84.193—between Log Cabin Road and Pine Woods Road. There is a 70-foot-high ridge paralleling Joe Lick Fork on the south which contains a few shallow hollows or draws. Perhaps the camp was nestled a few hundred feet from the creek in one of those draws.[13]

Evaluating the accounts
Locating Boone’s 1769 station camp nearer Blue Lick means it was 12 miles (measured in a straight line) further west than generally thought. This distance, while not excessive, has significance in the larger story of Boone’s trip that year. In fact, it should help resolve some geographical inconsistencies and contradictions between the various accounts of Boone’s arrival in the region. A brief look at a select few of those accounts—to review every one would take up a volume by itself—is warranted.[14]

In order of publication, we shall consider Filson (1784), Draper (1856), Thwaites (1902), Bakeless (1939), Faragher (1992) and Morgan (2007).[15] All six accounts have Boone, along with John Findlay, John Stewart, Joseph Holden, James Mooney and William Cooley,[16] leaving the Yadkin Valley on 1 May 1769 and making their way to Cumberland Gap where they picked up the Warriors’ Path and followed it to Flat Lick, in present-day Knox County.

Filson, writing as Boone, who related the story to him—although it is hard to know how faithfully it was repeated—devotes only a few lines to the journey. He says after a long trek westwardly, on June 7 they arrived on the Red River where Findlay had traded with the Indians (presumably on his trip in 1752). From the “top of an eminence” they viewed the “beautiful level of Kentucke.” They were distressed, mainly because of the weather experienced along the trail, and made camp.[17]

Draper, who called Filson’s version “carelessly expressed,” expanded the story somewhat, based largely on information from Daniel Bryan and Nathan Boone. Draper has the party taking the maze of connecting game and Indian trails, which would also be utilized by the Longhunters a month or so later, from Flat Lick to the head of Roundstone Creek, where they briefly camped. Alone, while the others worked in the camp and hunted, Boone climbed up the highest knob—which Draper called Big Hill—and viewed the flat land for the first time. He then returned to camp and told the others what he had seen. After resting, the group crossed the Cumberland River-Kentucky River dividing ridge near Big Hill, steered northeast to Red Lick Creek and followed that tributary to Station Camp Creek where they established their camp. After building a suitable shelter, Findlay went off on his own to find the spot where he had traded with the Indians, taking the Warriors’ Path to the abandoned town of Eskippakithiki, on Lulbegrud Creek. Findlay returned to camp ten days after departing, then guided Boone and Stewart to the town, arriving on June 7.

Thwaites relates very little in the way of detail, saying they took the Warrior’s path from Cumberland Gap to Station Camp Creek, where they made camp.

Bakeless has the party starting on the Warriors’ Path and ending on the “headwaters of the west branch of the Rockcastle River.” Reaching Station Camp Creek by June 7, they made camp. Boone then went off alone, climbed up Big Hill, viewed the land and returned to camp. Findlay traveled to Eskippakithiki and back—no time-span mentioned—then took Boone and Stewart to the town.

Faragher says the group followed the Warriors’ Path through Sand Gap to Station Camp Creek and made camp two or three miles south of Irvine; he says Pilot Knob was “nearby.” Boone and Findlay then continued up the Path to the abandoned Indian town, and, making their way “up the creek that watered Blue Lick Town, they climbed to a spot known locally as Pilot View,” where both men beheld the fertile region.

Morgan gets the group to the Rockcastle River area and has them going through “the low Sand Gap, or Boone’s Gap,” into the Kentucky River watershed. They made camp at Irvine, then Boone “climbed nearby Pilot Knob” and viewed the land. Boone and Findlay visited the Indian town on June 7.

As is immediately obvious, these various accounts disagree on a variety of issues. And a couple have serious geographic problems. Disappointingly, the two most recent take the greatest liberties with the area’s geography. Morgan’s version, in particular, is problematic—Sand Gap and Boone’s Gap are certainly not the same feature, as he intimates. There are two Pilot Knobs on modern maps in the region which concern this study—one is five miles east of Berea, the other is four miles southeast of Eskippakithiki. Both Morgan and Faragher say Pilot Knob is “nearby” the town of Irvine; the actual distance to either feature from Irvine is roughly 15 miles.

For these reasons, and because his information adds little detail to the discussion, Morgan’s account will not be considered further.

A quick comparison of the accounts reveals this partial list of readily-apparent contradictions:
  1. The Warriors’ Path did not go through Sand Gap—at least not if the community of Sand Gap in Jackson County is intended—as stated by Faragher. He identifies the gap as lying on the dividing ridge between the Cumberland and Kentucky River watersheds; perhaps he meant Paint Gap, which is so situated on the Knox County-Clay County line.
  2. Bakeless places Big Hill in the immediate vicinity of Station Camp Creek proper, which is a 15-mile error. He was doing his best to reconcile Filson’s, Draper’s and Thwaite’s versions, but ignored the geography.
  3. A comparison of the five accounts reveals two different travel routes and viewing-the-land sites. Twaites and Faragher keep the explorers on the Warriors’ Path until camp is made on main Station Camp Creek, while Draper and Bakeless have the group utilizing the interconnecting trails leading to the buffalo road on Roundstone Creek before finding their way to Station Camp Creek.
  4. There are also two different viewing-the-land sites. Faragher sets the vantage point as Pilot View—presumably the northern Pilot Knob nearer Eskippakithiki.[18] Draper and Bakeless say it was Big Hill, which could either mean Big Hill Mountain, south of the community of Big Hill, or the southern Pilot Knob, which overlooks the community of Big Hill (the two landmarks are only two miles apart).
  5. Twaites fails to specify the viewing spot; Filson gives neither route nor view-point location details. Faragher indicates Boone and Findlay both climbed the viewing height; the others say Boone went alone.
  6. The dates and details of Findlay’s trip to the abandoned Indian town vary, with Draper and Bakeless interpreting events given in Filson differently.

In fact, the most important discrepancies come down to the differences between Filson and Draper. As previously noted, Draper believed Filson’s rendition was “carelessly expressed.” Draper did not feel comfortable in dismissing Filson but he had solid information that Boone’s first camp was south of the Kentucky River, while a later camp was north, nearer the Red River.[19]

Inspecting Draper’s version
In retrospect, based on the information Draper accumulated in combination with what we now know about the location of the camp, Filson’s version seems a compressed and incomplete timeline of events (although that may not be an accurate appraisal, as explained later). This is not the proper place to conduct a discussion of the veracity of Filson’s Narrative, but in this particular instance a case can be made that Draper gives a more complete and convincing accounting of the group’s movements, although he may have shortchanged himself by trying to reconcile his own research with Filson’s writings.

With that in mind, Draper’s version of events bears closer scrutiny. To begin, Draper gives Boone’s route as similar to the path he used in 1775 when going to Boonesborough. An involved discussion of the early roads is not appropriate here; the important issue is that Draper brings Boone up Roundstone Creek. Suffice it to say that Boone could most certainly have found himself on Roundstone in 1769 with relative ease. Daniel Bryan seems to have implied Boone went that way and we know he returned home by using the route.[20]

Other accounts which have Boone traveling entirely on the Warriors’ Path seem to be the logical product of the desire to create the best route to his camp, thought to have been on main Station Camp Creek.[21] Even absent Draper’s Roundstone Creek course, if the camp was not on the creek proper but near the headwaters of Red Lick Creek, a Warriors’ Path-only route makes much less sense—there is no reason to postulate Boone leaving main Station Camp Creek, turning up Red Lick Creek and traveling for an extra day or so, only to have Findlay turn around and go back down the tributary to pick up the path to Eskippakithiki a few days later. Had they been so close to the town, they would likely have gone there first.

The initial problem with Draper’s account materializes with his mention of Big Hill, as that feature is not on Roundstone Creek proper. Boone would have had to have left his easily-followed buffalo road and made a significant eastern detour—more than seven miles—to ascend Big Hill (and he really would not have climbed up the hill at all, as he would have simply found himself at the top in the natural course of travel). The only way for Boone to have reasonably arrived at Big Hill would for him to have followed Clear Creek to its head. Clear Creek is a tributary of Roundstone, so, technically, the headwaters of Clear could be termed the headwaters of Roundstone. However, Boone would not have passed by the mouth of Clear Creek in 1769 and would not have, at that particular time, known of its existence.

There is also some question as to how much of the flat Bluegrass region Boone could have seen from the ridgetop. So having Boone at Big Hill does not seem logical.

Big Hill, at the time Draper was writing, was a prominent locale and an often-traveled road went through the area. The southern Pilot Knob is near Big Hill, so it is possible that it is the “eminence” Boone ascended. But to get to that point from the Roundstone headwaters Boone would have traveled through some fairly level ground and passed by several other good—and closer-to-the-trail—vantage points.

It should be noted that a 1949 geologic map[22[ has the area north of Pilot Knob marked as “Big Hill.” Whether this was a simple labeling error or if the entire area was once considered “Big Hill” is unclear.

Taking Draper’s account exactly as written, including the temporary camp and assuming that Boone did not travel several miles before ascending, the viewing site must have been located near the headwaters of Roundstone Creek. Depending on the definition of the precise location of those headwaters, we are left with only two possibilies. The first is the knobby ridgeline above US 25 at Boone’s Gap on the Madison-Rockcastle County line. The second is less than two miles west, near Flat Gap, where Garrard, Madison and Rockcastle Counties corner.

Neither height offers a breathtaking view, but Boone would have been able to spy something of the flatter land beyond.

The remainder of Draper’s description looks to have been devised to get the main camp on Station Camp Creek proper. Red Lick Creek is the most obvious route.[23] Of course, since we do not have to travel so far to the camp, other possibilities appear.

Climbing the “eminence”
One of the most direct statements in Filson’s account concerns the location of the camp in relation to the viewing point. Speaking of the height, he states: “At this place we encamped, and made a shelter to defend us from the inclement season, and began to hunt and reconnoitre the country.” This is in conflict with Draper, who has the viewing point and camp separated by at least a dozen miles.

Locating the camp as we have near Brushy Knob opens up several possibilities for the “eminence,” as there are four notable and suitable knobs/hills in the area: Joe Lick Knob; Brushy Knob itself; the aforementioned Pilot Knob; and Robe Mountain/Basin Mountain/Indian Fort Mountain.[24]
  1. Brushy Knob fits best with the exact wording in Filson, as the camp could very well have been on its northern shoulder. It is the shortest of the four in terms of elevation and offers the poorest view.
  2. Joe Lick Knob, northwest of the camp, offers a much better view and is a distinctive feature; it is about two miles from the Bledsoe land.
  3. Pilot Knob is similar to Joe Lick Knob and about the same distance from the camp, only to the south.
  4. The Robe/Basin/Indian Fort complex is a little taller than the others and can offer an outstanding view, while being a comparable distance from the camp.

Solid arguments could be made in favor of any of the four. But Robe Mountain has something going for it that the others do not—it would have been the first one Boone approached as he moved northward and there was very likely a buffalo road or game trail leading him directly to the Blue Lick at the foot of the mountain.

With the camp located on the upper reaches of Red Lick Creek, the prospect of the viewing point being near the camp is much more probable. It may also have been easy for Boone to have used the same elevated vantage to scout out a likely camping spot or two. In fact, it is almost impossible to imagine Boone and the others not climbing atop Robe Mountain or Joe Lick Knob to peer across the landscape, since both prominences were conspicuous, accessible and convenient to their camp.

Resolving differences
A crucial characteristic of Filson’s version is that, read literally, not only did Boone view and camp in the same area, but Findlay also had traded with the Indians nearby. Draper, and most other biographers, clearly dismiss this triple-event scenario.

There is a potential way out of this quandry. It is possible that Findlay traded with the Indians at a post other than Eskippakithiki, or traded with them in multiple places. There was at least one small Indian town or settlement in the Berea area—on Walnut Meadow Branch of Paint Lick Creek, no more than a couple of thousand feet west of Exit 77 on Interstate 75.[25] This presumed town was less than five miles west of the Blue Lick and a path connected the lick to the town area.[26] If Findlay traded with the Indians here after visiting Eskippakithiki, then events could have happened essentially as described by Filson, with Red Lick Creek substituted for the Red River.

Otherwise, we are left with Draper’s solution: Filson, in retelling Boone’s story, mixed up some details and compressed incidents which occurred at two different locations into a single event.

One other specific but contradictory detail given in the various accounts is the date, June 7. Filson has that date assigned to all three events—arrival at the town, viewing the flat land and making camp. Draper has June 7 only as when Findlay, Boone and Stewart visited Eskippakithiki, with a minimum of ten days passing between making camp and the visit. Bakeless has camp being made on that date, with the town visit happening later.

Analyzing travel rates yields inconclusive results in regard to the June 7 date. In 1775, it took Boone’s group approximately 15 days to get from Sycamore Shoals to the general area of the Blue Lick, while Richard Henderson’s entourage needed about 25 days. Allowing for the extra distance from the Yadkin Valley to Sycamore Shoals, and taking into consideration the slightly different routes used, similarly-paced journeys from the Yadkin Valley to the Blue Lick would have taken approximately 20 and 31 days, respectively—a difference in traveling rates of 9 miles per day as opposed to almost 14.[27]

One would think that Boone’s smaller 1769 party traveled faster than Henderson’s larger group six years later, although perhaps not as quickly as did Boone that same year because by that time he knew where he was going, even though they were taking time to mark the trail. A reasonable estimate would place Boone, Findlay, et al, at the camping site sometime during the last week of May.

Findlay took ten days to find Eskippakithiki and return to camp, according to Draper. Surely Findlay rested for a day before leading Boone and Stewart back out. Covering the approximately 38 miles between the camp and town would have taken the trio two or three days—the way should have been relatively easy and by then Findlay knew where he was going. Counting backward 14 days from June 7 sets the camp-making date as no later than May 24. Even allowing an extra couple of days would leave them a minimum of 22 days to travel from the Yakin Valley to the Blue Lick. Thus, Draper’s sequence of events will fit into the timeline.

This does not mean Filson’s date is incorrect or unreasonable, as the party may have had an unusually slow journey picking their way through the maze of trails and dealing with inclement weather. So the June 7 date cannot be used in strong support of or in opposition to either account.

Concluding the journey
In the end, we are left with two versions of Boone’s arrival into the interior of Kentucky.

One follows Filson’s wording very closely—the obvious difference being his Red River situating of events—with the traditional placements of the Indian town where Findlay traded being near Walnut Meadows (not Eskippakithiki) and the camp being in its new-found location a couple of miles east of the Blue Lick (not on either Station Camp Creek proper or the Red River). The “eminence” where Boone first viewed the fertile land of Kentucky’s interior could be a number of places—Boone’s Gap, Flat Gap, Robe Mountain, Joe Lick Knob, Pilot Knob or Brushy Knob.

The other version would be similar to Draper’s, with the major departure being the camp’s location east of the Blue Lick instead of on main Station Camp Creek. In this case, the viewing point would very likely have been either Boone's Gap or Robe Mountain, although the other potential locations also remain possibilities, and Findlay (and later Boone and Stewart) would have followed Red Lick Creek down to Station Camp Creek, then taken the Warriors’ Path to Eskippakithiki.

Which version is the most reasonable depends in large part on how much trust one places in Filson’s retelling of Boone’s story—and on the likelihood of Findlay previously trading with the Indians at Walnut Meadows. It must be pointed out that there is nothing in the record which solidly addresses the existence of a town near Walnut Meadows in the 1752 time-frame when Findlay was actively trading with the Indians, only that a small outpost or town once existed in the area at some point in history.

One final item worthy of mention is the “Squire Boone rock” on display in the Madison County courthouse. This man-sized, limestone slab, inscribed “1770 Squire Boone,” was found at the base of Robe Mountain/Basin Mountain, either on the northern side a few thousand feet from the Blue Lick or on the eastern side in Horse Cave Hollow. As is the case with many Boone-related artifacts, the authenticity of this autograph has been debated over the years. Legend has it that Squire cut his name into the rock upon returning from Virginia in the spring of 1770 to let Daniel know he had returned safely and to mark a cache of much-needed supplies.

Perhaps knowledge that Boone’s station camp was nearby adds an extra sense of legitimacy to the monument.

  1. John Mack Faragher, Daniel Boone: The Life And Legend Of An American Pioneer (New York: Henry Holt and Company, Inc., 1992), xvi.
  2. Lyman Copeland Draper, The Life Of Daniel Boone, edited by Ted Franklin Belue (Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books, 1998), p. 223.
  3. Draper, p. 210, 222. Draper chastises John Mason Peck's Life of Daniel Boone (1847) but the Red River location has its root in Filson's Narrative.
  4. Letter from E.P. Benton to Lyman C. Draper, 16 Jun 1884. DM 17C70.
  5. Benton to Draper, 29 Sep 1884. DM 17C70.
  6. M.R. Benton to Draper, 13 Aug 1885. DM 17C69.
  7. Lincoln County Entry Book (LCEB) 1, p. 32, Anthony Bledsoe, 11 May 1780.
  8. LCEB 2, p. 109, Joseph Bledsoe, 3 Jun 1784.
  9. The tract was surveyed in Bledsoe's name 5 Jun 1785. He sold it to James Speed, who received the patent, VA 8747.
  10. Geologic Map of Madison County Kentucky, Series IX, 1950, Kentucky Geological Survey, Lexington.
  11. For instance, James Speed's 6 May 1783 survey which included the Red Lick and called for Bledsoe's lines, VA 7170. Also, James Roberson's 8 Apr 1844 survey (#5583) which connected Bledsoe's survey with those of Benjamin Craig and Thomas Owsley on present-day Red Lick Creek, Cowbell Creek and Owsley Fork.
  12. A survey of the land which included the Blue Lick was made for Matthew Clay, 10 Nov 1796, OK 1936.
  13. Since Bledsoe's survey does not show the exact location of the camp, it is possible that changes between his entry's intent and the actual survey may have occurred, resulting in the camp being outside the bounds of the western edge of the survey, further up one of the tributaries. While unlikely, such would not be unprecedented.
  14. The intent of this exercise is not to criticize or find particular fault with any individual account. Rather, it is to call representative attention to the writers' contrasting interpretations of events and to explore how a missing data point, namely, the location of the station camp, perhaps played a role in those interpretations. Recognizable mistakes in substance, which here largely concern geography, are duly noted.
  15. The relevant sections of the accounts of Boone's 1769 journey will be cited here once. Further reference to the works in this context are not repeated in these notes. John Filson, The Discovery, Settlement and Present State of Kentucke (1784): An Online Electronic Text Edition (University of Nebraska - Lincoln: 2006), p. 40. Draper, p.208. Reuben Gold Twaites, Daniel Boone (New York: D. Appleton & Company, 1902), p. 73. John Bakeless, Daniel Boone: Master of the Wilderness (Rahway, NJ: Quinn & Boden Company, Inc., 1939), p. 48-50. Faragher, p. 77-79. Robert Morgan, Boone: A Biography (Chapel Hill, NC: Algonquin Books of Chapel Hill, 2007), p. 97-98.
  16. It is to be understood that the spellings of the names of Boone's companions varies slightly between accounts.
  17. One must wonder about exactly how far into the distance Boone could see if the weather was generally as poor as related here.
  18. There is a geographic feature named Pilot Knob four miles southeast of Eskippakithiki and a community named Pilot View four miles to the northwest. The latter is not on an elevation which would provide a view of the surrounding country. It is assumed Faragher intends the former as the viewing place, although he mentions both Pilot View and Pilot Knob in his account.
  19. Draper, p. 223.
  20. Draper, p. 219.
  21. However, one could argue that placing the camp anywhere on main Station Camp Creek is somewhat illogical, and, apart from the creek's name, has little to offer in support. A base camp sitting right on (or very near) the Warriors' Path would simply be inviting the kind of trouble Boone encountered later, plus such a location would not be convenient for hunting activities in the flatter region.
  22. Structural geologic map of the region south of Irvine and Berea in Estill, Jackson, Lee, Madison and Rockcastle Counties, Ky., Kentucky Geological Survey, Lexington, Series IX, 1949, reprinted without revision from Series VI, 1924.
  23. While nothing states so, there was surely a decent buffalo road down Red Lick Creek, from the Blue and Red Licks to main Station Camp Creek. Even without a trodden-down path, it would present a logical and straightforward course.
  24. Robe Mountain, Basin Mountain and Indian Fort Mountain are three sections of the same prominence east of Berea. At their tallest points, Robe Mountain has an elevation of 1,526 feet above sea level, although the height from the more likely section Boone may have used is 1,472 feet. Elevations, in feet, for the other knobs are: Brushy, 1,137; Joe Lick, 1,423; Pilot, 1,381. The elevation of Silver Creek on the eastern edge of Berea is 925 feet. The highest points with a possible view to the north for Boone's Gap and Flat Gap are at 1,266 and 1,307 feet, respectively.
  25. LCEB 1, p. 6, 15 Jan 1780, John Kennedy, Jr., VA 0630.
  26. LCEB 1, p. 374, 25 Feb 1783, Nathaniel Hart, "to include the Road that leads from the blue licks to the walnut meadows," and LCEB 2, p. 174, 3 Jan 1785, John Leveridge, "on the path that goes over from the walnut meadows to the Blue licks on Kennadys line." The wording of these entries is not sufficient to determine whether this path or road predated settlement of the area.
  27. From research by the author of the various routes, including the use of Richard Henderson's and William Calk's journals in George W. Ranck, Boonesborough: Its Founding, Pioneer Struggles, Indian Experiences, Transylvania Days, and Revolutionary Annals (Louisville: John P. Morton & Company, 1901), p. 163-164, 169-172.